Publicaciones 2011

Begoña Adiego, MD, Pilar Martinez-Ten, MD, Javier Perez-Pedregosa, MD, Tamara Illescas, MD, Esther Barron, MD, Amy E. Wong, MD, Waldo Sepulveda, MD. Antenatally Diagnosed Renal Duplex Anomalies. Sonographic Features and Long-term Postnatal Outcome. J Ultrasound Med 2011; 30:809–815.


Objectives. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy and infant outcomes of antenatally detected renal duplex anomalies.

Methods. An observational longitudinal study of cases of renal duplex anomalies diagnosed on prenatal sonography was conducted. Information on the prenatal sonographic findings, antenatal course, and perinatal outcome was obtained by reviewing the sonography reports and delivery records. Postnatal follow-up, including neonatal and infant evaluations, was obtained from hospital records.

Results. During a 7-year period, a total of 24 cases of renal duplex anomalies were identified prenatally. Three cases were excluded from subsequent analysis because of termination of pregnancy after the diagnosis of a severe brain abnormality, loss to follow-up, and an inability to confirm the prenatal diagnosis on neonatal renal sonography. Among the 21 confirmed cases, the presence of two separate renal pelvises was the most common prenatal sonographic feature (n = 15 [71%]), followed by dilatation of a single moiety with a dilated ipsilateral ureter or ureterocele (n = 6 [29%]). In 43% of cases, the renal duplex anomalies had no adverse associations, but in 48%, they were complicated by a urinary tract infection, and 48% of the infants required a surgical procedure during early childhood.

Conclusions. Renal duplex anomalies can be accurately diagnosed by prenatal sonography even when there is minimal dilatation of the renal pelvis. Antenatal diagnosis allows planning of postnatal care, which may prevent urinary tract infections and renal function impairment. The natural history of antenatally diagnosed duplex anomalies seems to be overall benign, with urinary tract infections and the need for surgery being the most common complications in affected infants.

Sepulveda W, Wong AE, Viñals F, Andreeva E, Adzehova N, Martinez-Ten P. Absent mandibular gap in the retronasal triangle view: a clue to the diagnosis of micrognathia in the first trimester. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Feb;39(2):152-6.


Objecive. To describe a new ultrasound technique that may be useful for the diagnosis of micrognathia in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Methods. The retronasal triangle (RNT) view is a technique that captures the coronal plane of the face in which the primary palate and the frontal processes of the maxilla are visualized simultaneously. Normal first-trimester fetuses display a characteristic gap between the right and left body of the mandible in this view (the 'mandibular gap'). The presence or absence of this gap was evaluated and measured prospectively during real-time scanning (n = 154) and retrospectively by analyzing three-dimensional (3D) datasets (n = 50) in normal first-trimester fetuses undergoing screening for aneuploidy at 11-13 weeks' gestation. 3D datasets from 12 fetuses with suspected micrognathia were also collected and examined retrospectively for the same features.

Results. The mandibular gap was identified in all 204 normal fetuses and increased linearly with increasing crown-rump length (y = 0.033x + 0.435; R(2) = 0.316), with no statistically significant differences between measurements obtained by two-dimensional ultrasound and 3D offline analysis. Among fetuses with suspected micrognathia, three 3D datasets were excluded from analysis because of poor image quality in one and the diagnosis of a normal chin in two. In the remaining nine fetuses, the mandibular gap was absent and was replaced by a bony structure representing the receding chin in seven (77.8%) cases and was not visualized due to severe retrognathia in the remaining two (22.2%) cases. All fetuses with micrognathia had associated anomalies, including seven with aneuploidy and two with skeletal dysplasia.

Conclusions. The RNT view may be a helpful technique for detecting micrognathia in the first trimester. The absence of the mandibular gap or failure to identify the mandible in this view is highly suggestive of micrognathia and should prompt a targeted ultrasound scan to assess for other anomalies. Further research is needed to determine the false-positive and false-negative rates of this technique.

Waldo Sepulveda, MD, Amy E. Wong, MD, Francella Castro, MD, Begoña Adiego, MD, Pilar Martinez-Ten, MD. Feasibility of 3-Dimensional Sonographic Examination of the Fetal Secondary Palate During the Second-Trimester Anatomy Scan. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Feb;39(2):152-6.


Objecives. To determine the feasibility of obtaining adequate 3-dimensional (3D) data sets to examine the fetal secondary palate during the second-trimester anatomy scan.

Methods. TDuring a 3-month period, 3D data sets of the fetal secondary palate were obtained from consecutive women undergoing routine second-trimester scans. Only structurally normal singleton fetuses with a normal upper lip on 2-dimensional (2D) sonography were included. Three-dimensional data sets were obtained using a mechanical transducer with a 45° sweep and the same settings as for the standard 2D scan, ideally when the fetus was facing the transducer, with mild extension of the head, and the ultrasound beams projecting caudally to cranially to avoid shadowing from the primary palate or mandible. No additional scanning time was allocated for examination of the palate. Acquired 3D data sets were analyzed offline using dedicated software, and the secondary palate was assessed using the “flipped face” technique.

Results. Ninety-seven women met entry criteria and underwent second-trimester scans at a median gestational age of 22 completed weeks (range, 18–23 weeks). In 13 (13.4%) cases, it was not possible to obtain a midsagittal view of the face for capturing 3D volume data sets due to fetal position. Additional factors limiting visualization were shadowing from the primary palate in fetuses with flexion of the head in 30 (30.9%) cases, interposition of, or shadowing from, fetal arms or legs in 11 (11.3%), inability to reproduce a true midsagittal plane in 8 (8.2%), and poor image quality in 1 (1%). Therefore, it was only possible to assess the secondary palate in 34 (35.1%) cases.

Conclusions. It is not feasible to obtain adequate 3D data sets for offline analysis of the fetal secondary palate in almost two-thirds of second-trimester fetuses during the routine scan. However, suboptimal visualization is primarily due to factors related to fetal position rather than equipment or image quality. This finding suggests that a dedicated scan, during which adequate time can be devoted to obtaining a satisfactory position in which the fetal face can be evaluated, may be warranted in high-risk cases.


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