Publicaciones 2016

Grimbizis GF, Di Spiezio Sardo A, Saravelos SH, Gordts S, Exacoustos C, Van Schoubroeck D, Bermejo C, Amso N, Nargund G, Timmerman D, Athanasiadis A, Brucker S, De Angelis C, Gergolet M, Chiu Li T, Tanos V, Tarlatzis B, Farquharson R, Gianaroli L, Campo R. (Congenital Uterine Anomalies (CONUTA) common ESHRE/ESGEWorking Group and invited Experts. The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ESGE consensus on diagnosis of female genital anomalies. Hum Reprod. 2016 Jan; 13(1):2-7.

STUDY QUESTIONS: What is the recommended diagnostic work-up of female genital anomalies according to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) system?

SUMARY ANSWER: The ESHRE/ESGE consensus for the diagnosis of female genital anomalies is presented.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies still remains a clinical challenge because of the drawbacks of the previous classification systems and the non-systematic use of diagnostic methods with varying accuracy, some of them quite inaccurate. Currently, a wide range of non-invasive diagnostic procedures are available enriching the opportunity to accurately detect the anatomical status of the female genital tract, as well as a new objective and comprehensive classification system with well-described classes and sub-classes.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The ESHRE/ESGE CONgenital UTerine Anomalies (CONUTA)Working Group) established an initiative with the goal of developing a consensus for the diagnosis of female genital anomalies. The CONUTA working group and imaging experts in the field have been appointed to run the project.

PARTICIPANTS, MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The consensus is developed based on: (i) evaluation of the currently available diagnostic methods and, more specifically, of their characteristics with the use of the experts panel consensus method and of their diagnostic accuracy by performing a systematic review of evidence and (ii) consensus for the definition of where and how to measure uterine wall thickness and the recommendations for the diagnostic work-up of female genital anomalies, based on the results of the previous evaluation procedure, with the use of the experts panel consensus method.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE : Uterine wall thickness is defined as the distance between the interostial line and external uterine profile at the midcoronal plane of the uterus; alternatively, if a coronal plane is not available, the mean anterior and posterior uterine wall thickness at the longitudinal plane could be used. Gynecological examination and two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US) are recommended for the evaluation of asymptomatic women. Three-dimensional (3D) US is recommended for the diagnosis of female genital anomalies in ‘symptomatic’ patients belonging to high risk groups for the presence of a female genital anomaly and in any asymptomatic woman suspected to have an anomaly from routine evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic evaluation are recommended for the subgroup of patients with suspected complex anomalies or in diagnostic dilemmas. Adolescents with symptoms suggestive for the presence of a female genital anomaly should be thoroughly evaluated with 2D US, 3D US, MRI and endoscopically.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONS: The various diagnostic methods should always be used in the proper way and evaluated by experts to avoid mis-, over- and underdiagnosis.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The role of a combined US examination and outpatient hysteroscopy should be prospectively evaluated. It is a challenge for further research, based on diagnosis, to objectively evaluate the clinical consequences related to various degrees of uterine deformity.


Carreras E, Maroto A, Illescas T, Meléndez M, Arévalo S, Peiró JL, García-Fontecha CG, Belfort M, Cuxart A. Prenatal ultrasound evaluation of segmental level of neurological lesion in fetuses with myelomeningocele: development of a new technique. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb;47(2):162-7.

OBJECTIVES: To report our preliminary experience in the use of prenatal ultrasound examination to assess lower-limb movements in fetuses with myelomeningocele. We aimed to determine the accuracy of this method to establish the segmental level of neurological lesion, as this is the best known predictor of the future ability to walk.

METHODS:This was a preliminary, observational study including fetuses with myelomeningocele operated on prenatally. The patterns of movements present and absent in the affected fetuses' lower limbs were evaluated systematically by ultrasound examination. According to the known nerve function associated with each muscle group, the segmental level of neurological lesion was established before birth. The agreement for the segmental levels assigned, between the prenatal ultrasound technique and the classical neurological clinical examination after birth (gold standard), was tested using the weighed kappa (wκ) index. RESULTS: Seventy-one fetuses with myelomeningocele were evaluated at the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. After counseling, the parents opted for prenatal surgery (26 cases), termination of pregnancy (43 cases) or postnatal repair (two cases). Five patients did not fulfil the inclusion criteria for prenatal surgery and three were excluded after birth. In the 18 fetuses that underwent surgery and were analyzed, the agreement between prenatal and postnatal segmental levels assigned was 91.7% for the right limb (wκ = 0.80) and 88.9% for the left limb (wκ = 0.73).

CONCLUSIONS: The agreement found between prenatal and postnatal assignment of level of lesion in this preliminary study suggests that neurological sonographic evaluation is feasible before birth. This may provide accurate individualized information about the motor function and future ambulation prognosis of fetuses with myelomeningocele.

Illescas T, Rodó C, Arévalo S, Giné C, Peiró JL, Carreras E. The quantitative lung index and the prediction of survival in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016 Mar;198:145-8.

INTRODUCTION: The lung-to-head ratio (LHR) is routinely used to select the best candidates for prenatal surgery and to follow-up the fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Since this index is gestation-dependent, the quantitative lung index (QLI) was proposed as an alternative parameter that stays constant throughout pregnancy. Our objective was to study the performance of QLI to predict survival in fetuses with CDH.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational retrospective study of fetuses with isolated CDH, referred to our center. LHR was originally used for the prenatal surgery evaluation. We calculated the QLI and compared the performance of both indexes (QLI and LHR) to predict survival.

RESULTS: From January-2009 to February-2015 we followed 31 fetuses with isolated CDH. The mean QLI was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.57-0.75) for survivors and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25-0.58) for non-survivors (p<0.01) and the mean LHR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17-1.60) for survivors and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.57-1.25) for non-survivors (p<0.02). All operated fetuses (n=12) had a LHR <1 and a QLI <0.5 and none of them survived when the QLI was <0.32. When separately considering the prenatal surgery status, the mean values of the QLI (but not those of the LHR) were still significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. The comparative ROC curves showed a better performance of the QLI with respect to the LHR for the prediction of survival, especially in the group of operated fetuses, although differences were not statistically significant.

COMMENT: The QLI seems to be a better predictor for survival than the LHR, specially for the group of fetuses undergoing prenatal surgery.

Monni G, Illescas T, Iuculano A, Floris M, Mulas F, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Gelber SE. Single center experience in selective feticide in high-order multiple pregnancy: clinical and ethical issues. J Perinat Med. 2016 Mar;44(2):161-6.

OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the 20-year experience with selective feticide (SF) of high-order multiple quadruplet and higher pregnancies in a single center. METHODS: The paper describes protocols, procedures, management, outcomes, and ethical issues.

RESULTS: SF was performed in 49 pregnancies with 244 fetuses, with median gestational age of 12+2 weeks. The initial number was nine (one case), eight (one case), seven (three cases), six (11 cases), five (eight cases), and four (27 cases). Nuchal translucency was utilized prior to the procedure starting in 1996. The technique was transabdominal ultrasound-guided and intrathoracic injection of potassium chloride. One pregnancy (with seven fetuses) was reduced to three, 42 to two, and four (starting with four fetuses) to singletons. There were ten pregnancy losses (20.4%). A decreasing trend in losses was evident over the 20-year time period: 7/23 (30.4%) from 1994 to 2004 down to 3/26 (11.5%) for 2004-2014. No chromosomal abnormalities were present in any of the survivors. The ethical issues focus on the justification of SF in high-order multifetal pregnancies.

CONCLUSION: In this series, pregnancy loss decreased with operator experience. Excellent outcomes can be achieved with the ethically justified use of feticide in high-order multiple pregnancies.

Gastañaga Holguera T, Llorente-Gomez B, Merino P, Illescas T, Villar G, Herraiz MA. Hydrops fetalis in a congenital chagas case in a non-endemic area. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Jul; 36(5):672-3.


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