Publicaciones 2014

Bermejo C, Martínez-Ten P, Recio M, Ruiz-López L, Díaz D, Illescas T. Three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging assessment of cervix and vagina in women with uterine malformations. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Mar;43(3):336-45.


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) with respect to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compared to clinical examination, in the assessment of cervix and vagina in women with uterine malformations.

METHODS: In this prospective study, 16 patients diagnosed with uterine malformation with cervical involvement underwent 3D-US examination. The acquisition of cervical volumes was transvaginal, with four cases repeated in the peri-ovulation period, while vaginal volumes were acquired by transperineal imaging following filling of the vagina with gel. MRI was performed in 13 patients using endovaginal gel. All cases underwent clinical examination, comprising bimanual gynecological examination and speculoscopy. Diagnostic concordance of each of the methods with the gold standard was calculated.

RESULTS: 3D-US cervical examinations revealed 12 cases of duplicate cervix, two of complete septate cervix and two of incomplete septate cervix. Images of the cervical canal in the peri-ovulation period were judged subjectively to be better in quality, but did not lead us to change any diagnosis. 3D-US vaginal examinations revealed four cases with a vaginal dividing wall and two with a blind hemivagina. None of the 3D-US findings contradicted the clinical findings of the cervix; however, clinically we observed two cases with vaginal dividing wall that had not been diagnosed with 3D-US. MRI diagnosed nine cases of duplicate cervix, three of complete septate cervix, one of incomplete septate cervix, five of vaginal dividing wall and two of blind hemivagina. One case diagnosed as complete septate cervix was in fact a duplicate cervix on 3D-US and on clinical examination. Compared with the gold standard, both 3D-US and MRI were highly efficient in the diagnosis of anomalies of the cervix and vagina. The overall diagnostic concordance of 3D-US with clinical examination (kappa, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1) was slightly inferior to that of MRI with clinical examination (kappa, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.72-1), but this difference was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: The acquisition of isolated cervical volumes, without including the uterus, defines the extent of the ectocervix and the limits of the cervical canal in uterine malformations. The use of endovaginal gel makes possible the diagnosis of associated vaginal anomalies with 3D-US.

Adiego B, Martinez-Ten P, Illescas T, Bermejo C, Sepulveda W. First-trimester assessment of nasal bone using retronasal triangle view: a prospective study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Mar;43(3):272-6.


OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and accuracy of fetal nasal bone (NB) assessment in the retronasal triangle (RNT) view for aneuploidy screening in the first trimester of pregnancy.

METHODS: Consecutive women with singleton pregnancies undergoing sonographic screening at 11-13 weeks' gestation were prospectively evaluated. In all cases, assessment of the NB by using the RNT view was attempted and classified as present (if one or both of the NBs were clearly seen) or absent/hypoplastic (if the NB was not visualized or if it was small and less echogenic than the surrounding bones). The detection rate of fetal karyotypic abnormalities by the assessment of the NB in the RNT view was calculated.

RESULTS: In total, 1977 women were scanned. The RNT was successfully examined in 1970 fetuses (99.6%). Fetal outcome was available in 1767 (89.7%) of evaluated cases, and of these, 39 (2.2%) cases of aneuploidy were documented (trisomy 21, n=17; trisomy 18, n=8; trisomy 13, n=5; Turner syndrome, n=5; and triploidy, n=4). The prevalence of absent/hypoplastic NB was 12/1728 (0.7%) in chromosomally normal fetuses and 12/17 (70.6%) in trisomy 21 fetuses. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of absent/hypoplastic NB for trisomy 21 were 70.6%, 99.3%, 50.0% and 99.7%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios of NB assessment were 101 (95% CI, 53-193) and 0.3 (95% CI, 0.14-0.62), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The RNT view is a useful technique for assessing the NB during the first trimester of pregnancy. With this new approach, performance of absent/hypoplastic NB as a marker of aneuploidy, mainly trisomy 21, appears to be similar to that previously reported by using the mid-sagittal plane.

Sepulveda W, Wong AE, Andreeva E, Odegova N, Martinez-Ten P, Meagher S (2014) 'Biparietal diameter-to-crown-rump length disproportion in first-trimester fetuses with holoprosencephaly', J Ultrasound Med. Jul;33(7):1165-9

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the biparietal diameter measurement is altered in first-trimester fetuses with holoprosencephaly.

METHODS: Cases of holoprosencephaly were collected retrospectively from 4 fetal medicine centers, and first-trimester biparietal diameter measurements were reviewed. The diagnosis of holoprosencephaly was established sonographically by the detection of abnormal choroid plexus morphologic characteristics (absent "butterfly" sign) and the identification of a monoventricular cerebral cavity on axial views of the fetal brain. The proportion of fetuses with biparietal diameter measurements below the 5th percentile for crown-rump length was determined.

RESULTS: Among 45 cases of holoprosencephaly reviewed, 43 had information on both biparietal diameter and crown-rump length measurements. The biparietal diameter was below the 5th percentile for crown-rump length in 14 (32.6%) fetuses. Chromosomal analysis was available in 41; no statistically significant difference in biparietal diameter measurement between those with associated chromosomal anomalies and those without anomalies was noted. A supplementary analysis using head circumference measurement showed an even greater proportion of fetuses with holoprosencephaly with measurements below the 5th percentile for crown-rump length (18 of 42 [42.9%]).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of first-trimester fetuses with a sonographic diagnosis of holoprosencephaly had a biparietal diameter that was smaller than expected for crown-rump length. In this subset of fetuses, the evaluation of intracranial anatomy for signs of holoprosencephaly may be more difficult to perform due to the smaller size of the brain. Therefore, the detection of a biparietal diameter below the 5th percentile as expected from crown-rump length on the first-trimester scan may be a warning sign of holoprosencephaly and should prompt a detailed examination of the intracranial anatomy.

Illescas T, Ibba RM, Zoppi MA, Iuculano A, Contu R, Monni G. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of a fetal testis granulosa cell tumour. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014 Jan;34(1):96-7.


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